Contact between the waste and oxygen oxidizer can thus be optimized. A Records keeps the names of network devices and IPv4 addresses that use the server. In characteristic manner, the device 5 for feeding waste D is fitted with means suitable for providing dual cooling of its structure. The heater means associated with said reactor can be of various types, and in particular can be suitable for implementing induction heating, flame heating, plasma torch heating, or heating by means of immersed electrodes. It can also give rise to electric arcing and thus raise serious problems when heating the bath of glass by induction.
This is illustrated in the House of Representatives, where the official name of the committee overseeing members' behavior is not - despite its wide use - the "House Ethics Committee," but rather the House Standards of Official Conduct Committee.
Tobias Rinsche becomes President of North American operations langtechus. El nuevo Medal of. This animated tour guides visitors through Henkel's sustainability activities.
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Unique lakeside property with metres of coastline which includes a sandy beach with thermal water bubbling up through the sand. Henkel operates in three strategic business areas: These strategic business areas are organized into four globally operating business sectors within Henkel: Most frequent English dictionary requests: Please click on the reason for your vote: This is not a good example for the translation above. The wrong words are highlighted.
It does not match my search. La repression monetaire de l'Afrique French Edition. Où acheter Monnaie, servitude et liberte: La repression monetaire de l'Afrique French Edition Titre de livres: Lire en ligne L'Anarchisme en Europe.
Où télécharger L'Anarchisme en Europe Titre de livres: Comment obtenir gratuitement L'Anarchisme en Europe Les formats de f French Edition Titre de livres: French Edition Les formats de f Lire en ligne Conduite du changement: Ebook gratuit en ligne Conduite du changement: Où lire Les poissons rouges French Edition. In this respect, the method of the invention is a direct vitrification method. In characteristic manner, according to the invention, said waste is introduced into said reactor into the gas phase of said reactor in association with dual cooling.
This can be thought of as cooling the device per se for feeding said reactor with waste and indirect cooling via said device of the waste that is being introduced.
Said device for feeding said reactor with said waste is cooled firstly on its side passing through the gas phase and secondly, and advantageously independently, on its side where the waste arrives. The first cooling is intended above all to protect said feeder device from corrosion which develops where it is in contact with the gas phase; the second cooling is intended above all to minimize the amount of heat transferred to the incoming waste, in order to minimize vaporization of liquid waste and prevent solid waste sticking together, where this can lead to the feeder device becoming clogged.
In order to implement such cooling, the structure of the feeder device has provision to circulate cooling fluids, generally cooling liquids. In a particularly preferred variant of said dual cooling, in order to implement at least the first cooling, a circuit is provided for at least one cooling fluid, which fluid is maintained at a temperature higher than the dew point of the gas phase through which the device passes.
This is intended to avoid any condensation of said gas phase on the walls of said feeder device. This condensation phenomenon is clearly harmful, given the problems of corrosion. It can also give rise to electric arcing and thus raise serious problems when heating the bath of glass by induction. Now that the principle of the main improvement provided by the invention to the method of direct vitrification has been stated i.
In particular, the method of the invention can be implemented with a bath of glass that is practically pre-constituted i. In this second variant, which is preferred, the reactor starts up with an initial bath of glass of small volume a starter bath and it is subsequently fed both with waste and with substances for constituting a bath of glass.
Said waste and said substances are indeed advantageously introduced as a mixture, and the waste can be thought of as one of the precursors of substances constituting said bath of glass. The reactor is thus fed continuously with waste and with substances for constituting the bath of glass, and indeed with additives therefor.
Once a certain level has been reached, both types of feed are stopped and the bath of glass built up in this way is emptied out. The waste, which in characteristic manner is cooled on being introduced, is incinerated at the surface of the bath of molten glass, in the presence of oxygen, said oxygen is delivered into the gas phase so as to act as an oxidizer therein. Advantageously, in order to optimize the incineration in question, the amount of oxygen introduced is greater than the theoretically required stoichiometric quantity.
Advantageously, the quantity introduced lies in the range 1. In any event, said quantity is controlled and does not interfere with the negative pressure that is maintained inside the reactor in conventional manner for obvious safety reasons. Said negative pressure is maintained by sucking out the combustion gases, with said suction being implemented under conditions which minimize the amount of waste, and above all the amount of ash, that is entrained.
The distribution of said oxygen within the gas phase overlying the bath of molten glass is advantageously optimized.
In particular, steps are taken to ensure proper mixing of waste and oxygen when said waste is introduced. Thus, said waste is advantageously introduced immersed in a flow of oxygen. To obtain such a result, it is advantageous to use at least one oxygen feed circuit in the structure of the device for feeding said waste. In general, such a circuit operates in addition to means for feeding oxygen into the gas phase of the reactor, which means are independent of the device for feeding waste.
In addition to said oxygen that is delivered as oxidizer into the gas phase, it is advantageous when implementing the method of the invention to introduce oxygen into the bath of molten glass. Said method advantageously includes injecting oxygen into said bath of molten glass in sufficient quantity to minimize or even to avoid the formation of metal within said bath of glass; advantageously, oxygen is introduced in sufficient quantity to minimize or even to avoid the formation of metal within said bath of glass and also to impart moderate stirring to said bath of glass.
Said oxygen injected into the bath of glass serves to adjust the oxidation-reduction redox potential of said bath of glass, and makes it possible to limit the reducing nature of the glass. By controlling the redox potential of the bath of glass in this way, it is possible within said bath of glass to avoid reducing oxides and thus to avoid forming metals.
The presence of such metals within said bath is very harmful for the uniformity of said bath and thus for the quality of the vitrification obtained. In addition, this presence can give rise to real difficulties when implementing heating by induction. The oxygen injected into the bath of glass to minimize or even to avoid the formation of metal is advantageously introduced in sufficient quantity also to impart a certain amount of stirring to said bath of glass.
The person skilled in the art knows how to optimize the quantity of oxygen necessary for these purposes. In any event, the quantity of oxygen must be sufficient to obtain the desired effect concerning the value of the redox potential, and indeed the desired effect concerning the value of said potential and the desired stirring, but under no circumstances must it be excessive insofar as the bath of glass although stirred and mixed must remain a bath of glass and must not be transformed into a foam.
Nevertheless, it is not impossible in the context of the invention to use a gas that contains oxygen, and in particular to use air, optionally enriched in oxygen, both as the oxidizer as the oxidant.
The oxygen injected into the bath of glass as an oxidant is advantageously introduced into the reactor beneath the surface of said bath of glass. Thus, the means for injecting said oxygen do not need to pass through the gas phase in said reactor, and are therefore subjected to one type of corrosion only, i. This type of remark applies to any device that needs to penetrate into said bath of glass in order to deliver any substance thereto injecting oxygen is discussed above or for measuring any parameter such as temperature, redox potential,.
Thus, any device for penetrating into said bath of glass is advantageously introduced into the reactor beneath the surface of said bath of glass so as to avoid any contact with the gas phase. The cooling specific to said device for feeding waste is described above, and here reference is being made to all of the other means that might be introduced into the reactor and in particular those for feeding it with oxygen both in its gas phase where said oxygen acts as an oxidizer and advantageously within the bath of glass where said oxygen acts as an oxidant for adjusting the redox potential of said bath of glass and advantageously also as stirring means.
This list of means that are advantageously cooled is not limiting. By way of illustration, it is possible to add thereto means for measuring the temperature of the gas phase, means for measuring the temperature of the bath of glass, means for monitoring the redox potential of said bath of glass, means for measuring the level of said bath of glass,.
Such cooling is intended above all to protect the walls of said means from corrosion. It is also appropriate to preserve the sealing devices that are installed where there are passages through said walls.
To implement such cooling in the walls of the reactor and of the various means introduced into said reactor, it is conventional to make use of cooling fluids, generally cooling liquids. Circuits for circulating such fluids are added to said walls and to said means. In the method of the invention, in order to heat and maintain the bath of molten glass at a suitable temperature, use can be made of various techniques.
Thus, said bath of glass can be heated by induction, by means of a flame, by using a plasma torch, or by means of electrodes dipped into the bath. It is not impossible to use a plurality of said techniques in combination. Induction heating is preferred; induction heating implemented in a cold crucible is most particularly preferred.
The method of the invention as described above and below with reference to the accompanying figures is particularly suitable for processing radioactive waste by direct vitrification. Said method of the invention is generally implemented with waste being fed in continuously; said waste being introduced above the surface of the bath of glass, possibly mixed with substances suitable for constituting said bath of glass.
After a fill has been incinerated and after the ash generated thereby has been digested in the bath of glass, said bath of filled glass is emptied out.
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